Let see! What types of soil used for Thai construction work?


เกร็ดความรู้ ดินกับงานก่อสร้าง จากบริษัทจีโอฮาร์เบอร์


Soil is considered a natural material. That is very important to construction. Whether it’s building a luxury building, an ordinary building, a bridge, or anything else. Everything has the same goal: it was created and designed to be stable and safe. 

In order to create things that are good like that. We have to think back to the roots. or basic starting point which for this time It’s about the bottom foundation or the soil. Because don’t forget that in the end, every building on this planet They all had to be built to stand on the ground (top of the soil).  

So, knowing the type of soil used in construction is something we will discuss next.


Types of soil used for construction 

รูปภาพตัวอย่างของดินแต่ละชนิด จากบริษัทจีโอฮาร์เบอร์

In fact, there are many different types of soil in our world. If we were to talk about every type, it would take several days to finish talking. 

As well as factors in the soil that greatly affect the existing load. In this article, for easier understanding, We would like to have a simple discussion on the following topics 

4 Types of soil that we usually use in construction.

  • Clay
  • Silt
  • Sand
  • Gravel)

Factors that are affecting to bearing capacity

  • The amount of water in the soil
  • Drainage
  • Soil Particles size 


The characteristics and features of each type of soil

ตารางเปรียบเทียบลักษณะ คุณสมบัติดินแต่ละชนิด จากบริษัทจีโอฮาร์เบอร์


  • is the first type of soil that we will talk about today. This clay is characteristics are: It is soil with small particle sizes. and has a fine grain texture. It is so small that it cannot be seen with the naked eye. (means particles per 1 tablet)
  • As for abilities, The drainage and air levels are low. which water level in soil particles As a result, the soil has a lower bearing capacity. 
  • Imagine liquid mud because of the properties of clay itself, which is highly plastic. (It will stretch when exposed to water. But it will shrink back as before when it dries, causing weight to press on it. Clay soil will not settle all at once; it will gradually settle, causing long-term subsidence. This can be seen from when we just bought the house. The house hasn’t collapsed yet. But a few years have passed. (The house collapsed heavily)


  • occurs during the natural decomposition process. Most of the time, they are washed away by water sources. The external appearance is that it is small.
  • In terms of drainage and aeration ability, it is considered not as good as clay soil because silt tends to retain water with it for a long time. Therefore causing a large amount of water to accumulate in the soil. As a result, the silt has a lower weight-bearing capacity, as in the case of clay soil. 
  • In addition, sometimes we may have the opportunity to see piles of silt in open areas that turn into puddles when it rains heavily. due to the original reason, which is that silt soil is quite slow to drain water. 


  • It is a soil with a coarse texture and a large particle size. It has a high density and is also found to be a soil that has little binding force. Because there is a small amount of welding agent from the low amount of organic matter in the soil, It’s easy to notice that if we try to pick up sandy soil, hold it tightly, and then let go, it will fall apart. It doesn’t clump together.    
  • As for the ability to drain water and air, it can be said that sandy soil does very well because it has high density but low porosity. This conflict allows water to flow through without holding any water at all, plus the size of the particles. This causes high friction between the soil grains. As a result, when weight presses on the sand, particles are rearranged until they are denser than before. and thus can support the weight of construction objects very well.


  • The last type of soil we will talk about today is. Gravel soil is the largest type of soil. Among the 4 types of soil, they are formed from the combination of many different types of rocks. This variety makes them have a coarse texture. In addition, they have little ability to bind together soil granules. 
  • As for the ability of gravel soil, it has a high drainage ability. 
  • The reason is due to the factors that control the conditions that allow water to permeate. Size and continuity of large gaps The larger and more continuous the gaps in the soil, the higher the water permeability. Or drain the water well. which, in addition to drainage, still affects the weight-bearing ability of the gravel soil. 

ตัวอย่างการเรียกชื่อดิน ตามปริมาณเนื้อดินที่ผสมกัน จากบริษัทจีโอฮาร์เบอร์

Even though the data tells us that sandy soil and gravel soil are the 2 types of soil that have the highest bearing strength, in reality, it’s about the soil. It’s much more complicated than that. Because in the actual area, we have no way of knowing what soil will be mixed in. We may encounter silt mixed with clay or silt mixed with sand. Or is it clay mixed with silt (as shown in the picture) We have no way of knowing. Because soil has very small particles, it is difficult to distinguish between different types of soil. So it is very difficult

Because of this, we had to do a survey. Before construction, because it will allow us to know for sure that in this underground, what kind of soil is mixed up? Once we know, we can choose a solution, or, simply put, a method, in soil improvement. It is suitable for the area. 

Follow us on other channels

Facebook : 

Scroll to Top